Red (orange) fluorescent protein TurboRFP

- Super bright red (orange) fluorescence
- Fast maturation, high pH-stability
- Recommended for gene expression analysis and cell and organelle labeling

Performance and use

TurboRFP can be expressed and detected in a wide range of organisms. Mammalian cells transiently transfected with TurboRFP expression vectors produce bright fluorescence in 8-10 hrs after transfection. No cytotoxic effects or visible protein aggregation are observed.

Despite its dimeric structure, TurboRFP performs well in some fusions. However, for protein labeling applications we recommend using specially optimized monomeric TagFPs.

TurboRFP can be used in multicolor labeling applications with blue, cyan, green, yellow, and far-red fluorescent dyes.

TurboRFP use for cell and organelle labeling.

Fluorescent microscopy of mammalian cells expressing cytoplasmic TurboRFP and TurboRFP fusion with mitochondrial targeting signal. Images made from HeLa cells 24 hrs after transfection.

TurboRFP maturation kinetics: TurboRFP matures noticeably faster than other red fluorescent proteins. To compare maturation of TurboRFP and DsRed-related proteins, HeLa cells were transiently transfected with mammalian expression vectors comprising TurboRFP, DsRed2, or DsRed-Express fluorescent proteins under the control of CMV promoter. The DNA concentrations were equalized before transfection. Cells were photographed using fluorescent microscope after different periods of cultivation. Faster appearance of bright fluorescence was detected in the case of TurboRFP. In addition, unlike DsRed-related proteins, no abnormal Golgi-like localization of TurboRFP was observed within 7 days after transfection.

Fluorescent microscopy of mammalian cells expressing TurboRFP, DsRed2, and DsRed-Express.

TurboRFP gives the brightest signal 22 hrs after transfection; DsRed2 and DsRed-Express show abnormal Golgi-like localization 7 days after transfection, whereas TurboRFP localizes evenly in cytosol.

* Brightness is a product of extinction coefficient and quantum yield, divided by 1000.
** DsRed2 and DsRed-Express characteristics available from literature sources are shown. Literature information regarding DsRed2 extinction coefficient and brightness differs from our data shown in parentheses.
Fluorescence colorred (orange)red (orange)red (orange)
Excitation max (nm)553563557
Emission max (nm)574582579
Quantum yield0.670.550.4
Extinction coefficient (M-1cm-1)92 000 43 800 (65 000) 30 100
Brightness*61.624.1 (35.8)12.6
pKa4.44.5no data
Molecular weight26.1 kDa25.8 kDa25.7 kDa
Detection in mammalian cells
(hrs after transfection)
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